The first image where everyone is gathered around, with the somewhat transparent person in the background can be easily explained with a few considerations. The camera taking the picture was most likely a low end digital camera or cellphone producing very low resolution images. Low resolution images typically have pixel blending as subject matter increases in distance.
Cameras do not see like the human eye. Surprisingly our eyes are substantially more sensitive to light and adjust quite well under low light conditions compared to a normal camera.
To fully understand this image, one has to understand how imaging is affected with light falloff. As the distance increases proper illumination requires substantially more power from the light source. In photography it's called the inverse square law. If light at one foot is considered 100% power at 2 feet light amounts to just 1/4 power. Here's a quick breakdown on light falloff according to distance.
1 foot = 100% power
2 feet = 1/4 the power
3 feet = 1/9 the power
4 feet - 1/16 the power
BTW - The image contains no EXIF data. As long as the data wasn't manipulated, there would be been much more information available in regards to camera settings.
As you can see light falls off quickly from the source and requires large compensations of light to properly illuminate, as the distance increases. A cell phone simply doesn't have enough light throw and the person is question, roughly calculating from the camera is at least 15 feet away. If that distance calculation of 15 feet is correct, light from the source would have approximately 1/225 it's original strength. Even with a stronger flash found on DLSR, the camera struggles quickly after 10 feet under near dark conditions. I suspect the light source might be a car headlight judging by the angle)
Long necks (within reason) are generally considered a feature of beauty in women and photographers use several tricks to accentuate the quality. That can be accomplished with camera angle and focal length of the lens. Although the last image that Jim has posted directly above me looks like the liquefy tool in Photoshop has been used for exaggeration purposes. I'm not suggesting that some people don't have long necks but that guy looks like he's been grazing with the giraffes
Edited by EVP, 24 March 2017 - 03:37 AM.